Manuscripts submitted to SBPJ may be: Full length original paper, Letters to the editor, Editorials, reviews, Short communications and as “Rapid publications” Basic science in medicine (by invitation or by special contact made bu authors to editors)

 Editorials (by invitation or by special contact made bu authors to editors)

The submission of case reports is discouraged. Novel observations including new laboratory findings or therapeutic approaches can be submitted as short communications.
Manuscript Preparation: The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript. The complete manuscript must be submitted to the publisher of Special Pathogens Journal [SBPJ] by email attachment to and copy to

Manuscript Length:

Letters: The maximum total page length for Letter type articles published in the journal is 4 journal pages including illustrations, references, and tables. Each journal page is on average 900 words. Original Research Articles: The maximum total page length for Research articles is fifteen journal pages (about 2200 characters per page), including illustrations, tables, references, summary and key words. Each journal page is on average 900 words.

Review Articles: The maximum page length limit for comprehensive Review articles is twenty five pages. For Mini-Review articles, the maximum page length is nine journal pages. Each journal page is on average 900 words. There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and data sets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.
Short communications
Short communications should not exceed 5 pages (about 2200 characters per page), including abstract, key words, references, figure legends, and tables. The results and discussion section may be combined.

Requirements for submission of manuscripts
Editorials should not exceed 4 pages in length (about 2200 characters per page). Summaries are not necessary but a list of not more than 10 references should be included.

Supplements/Single Topic Issues: The journal also considers Supplements/Single topic issues for publication. A Supplements/Single topic will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. A Supplement can consist of either all review articles or a mixture of review and research articles. The Guest Editors’ main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. Publication of the first six Supplements in this journal is free. Subsequently, the publication fees are reduced by 30% per article published off the normal publication fee rates (as stated below under Publication Fees). Editorial Board Members of the journal will receive a special discount of 50% on the total publication fee of their published article in a Supplement and authors from developing countries, a total discount of 65% off the publication fee. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to with a copy to

Conference Proceedings: The journal will consider for publication proceedings of relevant conferences in the field. Proposals for publishing conference proceedings should be submitted to the Editor at e-mail with a copy to

Open Access Book Reviews: This journal publishes open access reviews on recently published books (both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an independent expert in the field.

MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS: Manuscripts for research articles and letters submitted to SBPJ should be divided into the following sections; however, there can be an extension in the number of sections in review articles in accordance with the requirements of the topic.

  1. Covering letter
  2. Title page
  3. Abstract
  4. Text organization
  5. List of abbreviations (if any)
  6. Conflict of interest (if any)
  7. Acknowledgements (if any)
  8. References
  9. Appendixes
  10. Figures/illustrations (if any)
  11. Chemical structures (if any)
  12. Tables and captions (if any)
  13. Supportive/supplementary material (if any)


It is a mandatory requirement that a signed covering letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to the ‘Instructions for Authors‘. All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section and any typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission of the manuscript. The article contains no such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement.
TITLE Page: The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. The page should also include: date of draft, place of origin, hospital or institute; title; running title; authors; exact address for correspondence including phone and fax number and e-mail address; details of financial support, national fund, etc.). Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions. Authors should also provide 3 to 10 key words and a short ‘running title’.

ABSTRACT: The abstract should not exceed 250 words for review and research papers and letters and short communications should be limited to 150 words, summarizing the essential features of the article. The use of abbreviations should be reduced to a minimum and the references should not be cited in the abstract. The abstract should be divided into five sections: Background, Objectives, methods, results, and conclusions

TEXT ORGANIZATION: The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into separate sections. For Research articles, the preparation of the main text must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Materials and Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. For Review and Letter articles, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgement (if any) and Reference sections. The review article should mention any previous important reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent: For human or animal experimental investigations, it is a prerequisite to provide a formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee and should be documented in your paper. For investigations undertaken on human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which the informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e, oral or written), where there is an unavoidable risk of breach of privacy e.g, in a clinical photograph or in case details the patient’s written consent or that of the next of kin, to publication must be obtained. We will ask you to send a signed consent form before publication. Consent must be obtained for all Case Reports and Clinical Pictures.

The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g. in vivo, in vitro, per se, et al. etc.

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. Authors should disclose to these patients that the material will be available via the Internet after publication. An informed consent form may be obtained from the publisher.


If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations can be provided.


Financial contributions to the work being reported should be clearly acknowledged, as should any potential conflict of interest.


Please acknowledge anyone (individual/company/institution) who has contributed to the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. Please list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgements section.


References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

See below few examples of references listed in the correct style:

Typical Paper Reference:
[1] Agwu E, Ihongbe JC, Pazos V, Tirwomwe JF. Zero prevalence of parasites associated with oral lesions of HIV infected and AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. African Health Sciences 2009; 9(4): 239 – 244

Book Reference:
[2] Agwu E. A Handbook of Clinical Microbiology, Amaekpu-Ohafia: Spparenet , 2009

Edited Book:
[3] Thanh Dinh , Possible Diabetic-Foot Complications in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Agwu E, Dafiewhare OE and Ekanem PE, Global Perspective on Diabetic Foot Ulcerations, Thanh Dinh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-727-7, InTech, 2011, pp15-23

Chapter Reference:
[4] Agwu E, Dafiewhare OE and Ekanem PE. Possible Diabetic-Foot Complications in Sub-Saharan Africa, Global Perspective on Diabetic Foot Ulcerations, Thanh Dinh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-727-7, InTech, [2011]

Conference Paper and Proceedings:
[5] Agwu E, G. Tananyen Randomized health-point surveillance of human gastro-intestinal parasites among patients attending a teaching hospital in Ishaka, Uganda; presented as a poster at the 19th ECCMID meeting, Helsinki, 2009

Published Book (Monograph):
[6] Agwu E. A Handbook of Clinical Microbiology, Amaekpu-Ohafia: Spparenet press, 2009

Dissertation or Thesis:
[7] Agwu E, Immunogenicity of locally prepared antigens of Salmonella species B.Sc diss Dept of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Calabar Nigeria, 1998

[8] Agwu E., Ihongbe J.C., Okogun G.R.A., Inyang, N.J. High incidence of co-infection with malaria and typhoid in febrile HIV Infected and AIDS patients in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiol 2009; 40 (2):329-332. Available from:


The authors should provide the illustrations as separate files, as well as embedded in the text file, numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include a single illustration. No charges will be levied on the use of color figures except in the reprints. Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration. If a figure consists of separate parts, it is important that a single composite illustration file be submitted, containing all parts of the figure. Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.

Rapid publication
If authors feel that for reasons of general or public interest their manuscript requires more expeditious publication and quick processing through peer review, they may inform the Editorial Board during the online submission process indicating:

– the reasons the authors think the manuscript should be published immediately;
– the question(s) addressed by the study;
– the results obtained;
– the implications of the findings.

Upon receipt of such a request a member of the Editorial Board will contact the authors and negotiate the submission. SPJ will review the manuscript within 2 weeks of submission and publish it within 2 weeks of acceptance of the final version.

Customary abbreviations (e.g. ACTH, ECG) are permitted. All other abbreviations should be used sparingly and an alphabetic list of abbreviations with explanations should be supplied. Abbreviations that are used only once should be avoided. Always use SI units. Results in other units may be added in parentheses.

Tables and figures

Tables and figures should be commented upon in the text and their position marked at the appropriate point. In the case of figures and tables from other publications, the source must be stated and copyright agreements provided. Lengthy tables should be avoided. Tables should be provided with captions, numbered consecutively and each reproduced on a separate page of the manuscript (not as a separate file!). The editor, on accepting a paper, may recommend that additional tables containing important backup data too extensive to publish be published on the SPJ website. In that event an appropriate statement will be added to the text. Submit such tables for consideration with the paper.

* Data tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
* Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
* Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
* Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
* Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
* Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
* If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
* Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.

 Figures should each be submitted with a legend on a separate manuscript page. Captions should be formulated so as to allow the figure to be understood without reference to the text. All abbreviations employed should be explained in the caption if not already included in the list of abbreviations. The figure should be imported using the jpeg format not exceeding a file size of 2 MB. With critical material we may request higher resolution illustrations during the review process. Upon acceptance of a manuscript we will negotiate with the authors the final submission of figures and photographs, either as high resolution files or glossy prints or slides. Color illustrations are accepted at no extra page charge.
If a figure or a table has been published before, the original source should be acknowledged accompanied by written permission from the copyright holder for reproduction of the material

General recommendations

* All references must be complete and accurate.
* If the number of authors exceeds six then et al will be used after three names (the term “et al ” should be in italics.)
* Online citations should include the date of access.
* Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
* Take special care of the punctuation convention as described above.
* Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
* Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
* The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.  Special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML2.
*Authorship credit should be based only on: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met. Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship, nor does the fact of being in sole charge of the clinic or department in which the article was prepared. Such contributions should be listed as acknowledgements. In view of these requirements, more than six authors will be listed only in exceptional cases.
All authors must certify that neither this manuscript, nor any other with substantially similar content by one or more of the same authors, has been published, accepted or is currently being assessed by another journal with a view to publication. Publications partly duplicating material in the submitted paper should be enclosed during the submission process.


The copyright in the accepted article is transferred to SPJ for the duration of the statutory copyright term. The Publishers thereby acquire the right to use the article an unlimited number of times, to adapt it (e.g. for the purpose of abstracts), to translate it, duplicate it, communicate it, make further use of it, publish or distribute it, in any form and via any medium (including the Internet) and to grant free of charge to the author himself, to third parties and to the general public the corresponding rights of use, adaptation etc. (open access publication). The authors of accepted articles must consent to the transfer of copyright.

All manuscripts should be submitted online: by email attachment to and

For illustrations, the following file formats are acceptable:

• Illustrator
• EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
• PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
• PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
• Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
• PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
• JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)

If the large size of TIFF or EPS figures acts as an obstacle to online submission, authors may find that conversion to JPEG format before submission results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format, however. In order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality. Files should not be compressed with tools such as Zipit or Stuffit prior to submission as these tools will in any case produce negligible file-size savings for JPEGs and TIFFs, which are already compressed.

Please do not:

  1. Supply embedded graphics in your word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
  2. Supply files with low resolution optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG);
  3. Supply files that are too low in resolution.
  4. Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.SUPPORTIVE/SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL:

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which must be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.

Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading “Supportive/Supplementary Material” before the “References” section should be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for each file describing its contents.

Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/ Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB. Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers’/editors’ perusal only.


Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.


The author will be required to provide their full names, the institutional affiliations and the location, with an asterisk in front of the name of the principal/corresponding author. The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address must be stated to receive correspondence and galley proofs.


All manuscripts submitted for publication will be immediately subjected to peer-reviewing, usually in consultation with the members of the Editorial Advisory Board and a number of external referees. Authors may, however, provide in their Covering Letter the contact details (including e-mail addresses) of four potential peer reviewers for their paper. Any peer reviewers suggested should not have recently published with any of the authors of the submitted manuscript and should not be members of the same research institution.  All peer-reviewing will be conducted via the Internet to facilitate rapid reviewing of the submitted manuscripts. Every possible effort will be made to assess the manuscripts quickly with the decision being conveyed to the authors in due course.


Manuscripts must be written in good English in a clear and correct style. In order to maintain uniformity throughout the text, the manuscript should be written in either American or British English. Submitted manuscripts will not be edited for style or language, and reviewers may advise rejection of a manuscript if it is compromised by grammatical errors. Non-native speakers of English should ensure that native English speaking citizen edits his or her manuscript before it is submitted


Authors are required to proofread their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s) must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard. The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.

Handling/Publication fees: All accepted contributions to the first publication of SBPJ will automatically receive 50% discount. The publication fee details for each article types published in the journal are given below:

Letters: The publication fee for each published Letter article submitted is US $20.

Research Articles: The publication fee for each published Research article is US $50.

Book Reviews: The open access fee for a published book review is US $100.

Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive by email an electronic invoice. Submissions from the Editorial Board Members of the journal will receive a special discount of 50% on the total publication fee. Submissions by authors from developing countries will receive a discount of 30% on the total publication fee charge.

MEMBERSHIP: Join as a member of SPJ today to obtain great discounts on your article publication fees!

REPRINTS: High quality printed reprints of published articles are available for purchase, if ordered, with a minimum number of 100 reprints.

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